In the HEQ5 alignment telescope
The polar axis of the mount has a small telescope inside it for aligning the mount on the pole
The diagram shows a graticule seen within that telescope
NCP = North Celestial Pole
Polaris is about 1 degree away from the NCP so the alignment depends on the orientation of the Plough and Cassiopeia
Octans is for observers in the southern hemisphere who have no star near the pole
Having set the mount in approximately the right position there are adjusting screws for getting Polaris into the small circle as seen through this axial telescope.