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In the HEQ5 alignment telescope

The polar axis of the mount has a small telescope inside it for aligning the mount on the pole

The diagram shows a graticule seen within that telescope

NCP = North Celestial Pole

Polaris is about 1 degree away from the NCP so the alignment depends on the orientation of the Plough and Cassiopeia

Octans is for observers in the southern hemisphere who have no star near the pole

Having set the mount in approximately the right position there are adjusting screws for getting Polaris into the small circle as seen through this axial telescope.

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